Conceived and designed the experiments: The phylogenetic position and evolution of Hemidactylus anamallensis family Gekkonidae has been much debated in recent times. Sincethis species has been assigned to Hemidactylusbut there is much disagreement between authors regarding its phylogenetic position within this genus. In a recent molecular study H. However, this study did not include genera closely allied to Hemidactylusthus a robust evaluation of this hypothesis was not undertaken.
The objective of this study Photo bio centre in bangalore dating to investigate the phylogenetic position of H.
To this end, several nuclear and mitochondrial markers were sequenced from H. sequences in conjunction with published sequences were subjected to multiple phylogenetic analyses. Furthermore the nuclear dataset was also subjected to molecular dating analysis to ascertain the divergence between H.
Results showed that H. The divergence estimates supported a scenario Photo bio centre in bangalore dating H. Based on these molecular Photo bio centre in bangalore dating and biogeographical scenario we suggest that the genus Dravidogecko should be resurrected.
Hemidactylus anamallensisa gekkonid endemic to the Western Ghats of South India has undergone many taxonomic revisions, yet its phylogenetic position and taxonomic status remains unresolved. This species was originally described as a member of Hoplodactylus a genus in the family Diplodactylidae that is confined to New Zealand. Underwood  and Kluge  also demonstrated that Dravidogecko was a gekkonid gecko and not a member of the family Diplodactylidae.
Russell  on the basis of digital structure hypothesised that Dravidogecko was closely related to Hemidactylus group within family Gekkonidae.
Later, Bauer and Russell  synonymised Dravidogecko as Hemidactylusrenaming it as Hemidactylus anamallensisbecause there were no morphological features that were unique to Dravidogecko when compared with Hemidactylus. They also suggested that H. Hemidactylus is a species rich genus with recognised species  distributed worldwide and has been identified predominantly on the basis of its phalangeal taxonomy . Russell  suggested that the genera BribaCosymbotusDravidogecko and Teratolepis also belong to Hemidactylus.
Carranza and Arnold  undertook one of the most comprehensive phylogenetic studies of Hemidactylus based on mitochondrial 12S rRNA and cytochrome b sequenced from 30 species sampled from around the world. Their phylogeny retrieved five well supported clades. Three subsequent studies that included additional species around 14 also retrieved the aforementioned clades  — . In Carranza and Arnold  phylogeny Cosymbotus distributed in Southeast Asia and Briba Photo bio centre in bangalore dating genus from Brazil were deeply nested within the Hemidactylus group, hence Photo bio centre in bangalore dating synonymised these genera with Hemidactylus.
Therefore, they synonymised it with Hemidactylusrenaming it as Hemidactylus imbricatus. These studies did not include H. Thus, its affinity to Hemidactylus based on morphological data needs to be evaluated using molecular data. Within the Hemidactylus radiation, H. Whereas Bauer et al. Thus, both the above scenarios would predict H. These scenarios are in sharp contrast to Bauer and Russell's  hypothesis, wherein they considered H.
These putative phylogenetic
Therefore, the authors called for a re-examination of its allocation to the genus Hemidactylus with additional molecular data from related genera.
To this end, several nuclear and mitochondrial markers were sequenced from multiple H. These alignments were then subjected to multiple phylogenetic analyses. Results from Photo bio centre in bangalore dating analyses in conjunction with molecular dating were used to understand the origin and biogeography of H. All tree building methods retrieved a strongly supported clade consisting of the genera Agamura, Crossobamon, Cyrtodactylus, Cyrtopodian, Geckoella, Hemidactylus, Stenodactylus and Tropicolotes.
Members of this clade, henceforth referred to as deletion clade, also shared a 21 bp deletion in the C-mos gene Bayesian tree shown in figure 1a and b.
The relationships between members of the deletion clade were also identical across tree-building methods. Within the deletion clade, Hemidactylus excluding H. Additionally it was observed that the members of this Hemidactylus clade shared a unique 9 bp insertion in the C-mos gene figure 1b. However, this insertion was not seen in H. In all Photo bio centre in bangalore dating trees H. For a list of sequences used and their accession numbers see table 1.
Bayesian tree based on combined dataset of C-mos and 12S rRNA genes showing the relationships among the members of the family Gekkoninae. Black arrow represents the node that constitutes the members of the deletion clade and the white arrow represents the node, which separates the taxa with insertion Hemidactylus.
In all the methods of phylogenetic inference, H. Genera Cyrtodactylus and Geckoella were sister to Hemidactylus - H. Bayesian posterior probabilities and maximum likelihood bootstrap supports Photo bio centre in bangalore dating shown at the base of the nodes. Grey bars indicate the credible intervals. Black circle on the node represents the fixed date node and the hollow circle represents minimum age constraint node.
Black arrow represents the node at which H. For the complete tree see figure S1 and table S4. Bayesian estimation of divergence dates suggests that the ancestral lineage leading to H. Additionally the lineage leading to the remaining Hemidactylus underwent radiation much later around The divergence dates estimated at the other nodes in this analysis were concordant with the divergence dates from previous studies  — .
The molecular data presented in the current study provided interesting insights into the phylogenetic position of H. This clade received high posterior probability and bootstrap support and, more importantly the members of this clade shared
Photo bio centre in bangalore dating 21 bp deletion that was not seen in any other gekkonid.
Within the deletion clade H. Thus the nuclear markers support Bauer and Russell's  hypothesis that H. Interestingly in the C-mos gene, a 9 bp insertion was observed among Hemidactylus figure 1b. This insertion was unique to the Hemidactylus lineage and was not Photo bio centre in bangalore dating Photo bio centre in bangalore dating any other Gekkonid including H. Thus among nuclear markers H.
Our divergence date estimates based on both fossils as well as biogeographical Photo bio centre in bangalore dating suggested that the divergence between the lineage leading to H. However, the remaining members of the Hemidactylus lineage radiated much later around During the late Cretaceous period peninsular Indian landmass was isolated from all other landmasses having separated from Madagascar around 80 mya.
Nevertheless fossil evidence suggested that peninsular India, during its northward journey, remained close to Photo bio centre in bangalore dating and Eurasia until it collided with the Asian plate around 55 mya .
Thus faunal links between peninsular Indian and these landmasses were maintained by vagile animals, which were able to surmount minor marine barriers . Interestingly members of the deletion clade figure 1awhich consisted of genera closely related to H.
This distribution pattern suggested that basal radiation within this clade might have occurred on these landmasses. Furthermore during the early stages of this radiation one of the lineages might have dispersed on to the drifting peninsular Indian plate where it eventually evolved into H.
Much later, around Recent molecular studies on Hemidactylus revealed that India harboured an endemic radiation . Photo bio centre in bangalore dating to our dating estimate, this Indian radiation occurred around Taken together these dates suggested that Hemidactylus arrived on the Indian plate after peninsular India collided with Asia. During this time H. In a recent molecular study a similar late Cretaceous dispersal of frogs on to drifting peninsular India has been reported .
Thus, the dating estimates suggests that H. Taken together, these results support the reassignment of H.
In past, authors have sunk Dravidogecko into Hemidactylusas there were no morphological features that were unique to Dravidogecko . According to Bauer et al. They suggested that H. However the present study does not support this relationship as in both the phylogenies H.
Thus this character undivided lamellae appears to have been secondarily derived in one of the lineages of Hemidactylus. Genera that are purported to be closely related to Hemidactylus such as CyrtodactylusCyrtopodianGeckoella as well as H.
Total DNA was extracted from the tail clippings stored in absolute alcohol following standard proteinase K protocol . For the remaining genera of the family Gekkonidae, sequences were downloaded from GenBank table 1. Percent sequence Photo bio centre in bangalore dating for this study: The sequences generated here were combined with published sequences to derive different datasets.
First, to determine the phylogenetic position of H. To clarify the position H. In both the above datasets representatives from all the five clades of the Hemidactylus radiation were included. These sequences were aligned using ClustalW 1.
These two were then subjected to maximum parsimony MPmaximum likelihood ML and Bayesian analyses. The two datasets could not be combined because there was a lack of overlap in sequence data between them.
Photo bio centre in bangalore dating was also useful in clarifying the position of H. Supports for various nodes were evaluated through replicates of bootstrapping in parsimony analysis.
Conceived and designed the experiments: The phylogenetic position and evolution of Hemidactylus anamallensis family Gekkonidae has been much debated in recent times. Since , this species has been assigned to Hemidactylus , but there is much disagreement between authors regarding its phylogenetic position within this genus. In a recent molecular study H. However, this study did not include genera closely allied to Hemidactylus , thus a robust evaluation of this hypothesis was not undertaken.
The objective of this study was to investigate the phylogenetic position of H. To this end, several nuclear and mitochondrial markers were sequenced from H.
These sequences in conjunction with published sequences were subjected to multiple phylogenetic analyses. Furthermore the nuclear dataset was also subjected to molecular dating analysis to ascertain the divergence between H.
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Mem Queensl Mus Near Police Qutrs mohammedtalha gmail. However, Han et al. However, in their study genera closely allied to Hemidactylus were not included, thus a robust evaluation of the phylogenetic position of H. To this end, several nuclear and mitochondrial markers were sequenced from H. T Nagar, Bangalore mdidris gmail.
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