To date, little is known regarding the psychological characteristics in Chinese MSM, especially the prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts. A questionnaire survey was conducted on 2, MSM recruited
Zhang beichuan homosexual adoption gay bars in 9 large cities in mainland China. Data on the prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts as
Zhang beichuan homosexual adoption as the underlying causes in the respondents were analyzed. A total of MSM responded to the question Zhang beichuan homosexual adoption previous suicidal ideation and attempts.
Of these respondents, Romantic gay relationship breakup was the number one cause of suicide behaviors, followed Zhang beichuan homosexual adoption self-objection to homosexuality, difficulties in finding gay partners or in getting used to heterosexual marriage life, sudden emotional hurts from unexpected events, illegal status of gay marriage in China and disclosure of homosexuality. The survey study has led to a better understanding of the factors contributing to suicide behaviors of MSM in China, which may have significant implications in developing preventive strategies against suicide behaviors in this unique group of individuals.
The world has witnessed an economic miracle over the past Zhang beichuan homosexual adoption decades in mainland China.
MSM are more likely to develop various mental health problems [ 67 ], including suicidal behaviors than the heterosexual peers. Nevertheless, the severity of these problems varies considerably among geographic areas and racial and age groups [ 8 ]. In China, our previous study showed that one third of MSM with high-risk behaviors in large cities had considered suicide [ 12 ].
The reasons for increased risk of psychological distress and suicidal behaviors in MSM are not fully understood. From the
Zhang beichuan homosexual adoption literature, it seems that the causes of suicidal behaviors in MSM may vary with race, age, education level, socioeconomic Zhang beichuan homosexual adoption, geographic area, etc.
To date, studies have assessed the factors triggering suicide behaviors
Zhang beichuan homosexual adoption MSM in China, although elevated suicidal intent in Chinese MSM has been consensually recognized. The present study was therefore undertaken to assess the risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempts in a purposive sample of MSM recruited from hidden gay bars in nine large cities in mainland China.
The core component of this project was a questionnaire survey conducted on MSM in hidden gay bars in nine large Chinese cities i. Five of these questions were focusing on the suicidal aspect of the psychological and behavioral characteristics of MSM. These five questions are: The respondents were allowed to make more than one choices when answering question number 2.
The information on the HIV status of the survey participants was also collected. Given the sensitive nature of homosexuality, MSM in China are usually hard to be identified and probed. A snowball sampling approach was adopted to recruit subjects in this survey study.
Through this approach, subjects in the upper layer recruited subjects in the lower layer from their acquaintances. Zhang beichuan homosexual adoption questions were printed in the Chinese language and distributed to the recruited subjects. Both partially and completely answered questionnaires were collected. The study protocol was critically reviewed and approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Qingdao University School of Medicine.
The execution of the strictly followed the ethical principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki regarding human clinical research. A written consent signed in person Zhang beichuan homosexual adoption the snowball sampling process was obtained from all subjects. A total of subjects returned their questionnaires.
The subjects were categorized into two groups based on their answer to the first question in the survey: Those in the suicide intent group were stratified into a suicide attempt group and a non-suicide attempt group based on their answer to the third question.
Zhang beichuan homosexual adoption, a mean and standard deviation SD of percentage were calculated for each of the categorical variables included in the study. Differences between groups were
Zhang beichuan homosexual adoption with chi-square test or Mann-Whitney Test. Correlations between the included variables and suicidal thoughts or suicide attempts were assessed by Zhang beichuan homosexual adoption multiple regression analysis.
Out of the respondents in total, responded to the first survey question i. To this question, The mean age of the respondents who had suicide intent was 26 The most frequently answered reason was breakup of the romantic relationship with
Zhang beichuan homosexual adoption partners, followed by self-objection to homosexuality, failure to find appropriate gay partner spressure from being Zhang beichuan homosexual adoption to get married to a woman, difficulties in getting used to a marriage life, sudden emotional hurts from unexpected events, illegal status of gay marriage in China, and disclosure of sexual orientation.
For this reason, the number of denominator in the percentage was different for different causes. In the respondents who responded to the question regarding suicide behaviors, Attempt was made once, two times and more than two times and 16 respondents respectively. The HIV infection rate Zhang beichuan homosexual adoption 2.
Suicide is the 13th leading cause of death worldwide [ 13 ] but is the 5th leading cause of death in China [ 14 Zhang beichuan homosexual adoption it Zhang beichuan homosexual adoption estimated that nearly half of the global suicide cases are from China, India and Japan. In the general population in China, the overall lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation was 2. In the present survey, we found that Apparently, the prevalence of either suicidal ideation or attempt in the unique population of MSM
Zhang beichuan homosexual adoption China, is significantly higher than that in the general Chinese population; our finding is in agreement with the findings from studies in other regions of the world where homosexual and bisexual men are at a far greater risk of suicidal behaviors [ 69 - 11 ].
Suicide is a complex human behavior which is hardly predictable. Nevertheless, a
Zhang beichuan homosexual adoption of factors have been demonstrated to contribute to suicide. In this study, our survey analysis showed that romantic relation breakup with gay partner s was the single most important trigger of suicidal behaviors in MSM in China and The second most important trigger of suicide behaviors in MSM in China as demonstrated in this study was the self-unacceptance of or self-objection to homosexuality.
Culturally, strong stigma and discriminations exist against homosexual and bisexual behaviors in China, which is easy to understand. However, to our surprise, the survey data in this study showed that This finding implies that health professionals, social workers and all others including parents and relatives who do care about the well-being of MSM should pay more attention to the psychological health of this particular group of people to minimize their suicide attempts.
Other causes of suicide behaviors in the MSM surveyed in this study include difficulties in finding gay partners or in getting used to heterosexual marriage life, pressure from being to marry
Zhang beichuan homosexual adoption woman, sudden emotional stress from unexpected events, illegal status of gay marriage in China and disclosure of homosexuality to others.
All these causes have been also reported in previous Zhang beichuan homosexual adoption. While elevated suicidal ideation in MSM has been reported to be associated with the positive HIV tests in some studies [ 1718 ], Gibbie et al. Supporting the observation of Gibbie et al.
Zhang beichuan homosexual adoption data of the subjected analyzed in this study were presented in one of our previous papers [ 12 ].
In the present study, we did not include sociodemographic Zhang beichuan homosexual adoption beichuan homosexual adoption like income, education, profession, etc. This Zhang beichuan homosexual adoption the major limitation of this study.
Out of a total of MSM involved in this large-scale questionnaire survey conducted in 9 large Chinese cities, respondents answered the question regarding previous suicide behaviors. Romantic gay relationship breakup was the number one reason for the suicide behaviors, followed by self-objection to their homosexuality, difficulty in finding gay partners, difficulty in getting used to heterosexual marriage life, sudden emotional hurts from unexpected events, illegal status of gay marriage in China and disclosure of homosexuality.
Identification of the factors contributable to suicide behaviors of MSM in China may have significant implications in developing preventive strategies against suicide behaviors in this unique group of individuals. Zhang beichuan homosexual adoption contributed to this work by performing data retrieval and statistical analyses and preparing the initial draft of the manuscript. YL and LW participated in the data analyses.
BZ was the PI of this study and constructed the conceptual framework of the work. All authors have read and approved the final version of Zhang beichuan homosexual adoption manuscript.
National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.
Published online Feb 7. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Nov 20; Accepted Jan This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Methods A questionnaire survey conducted on 2, Zhang beichuan homosexual adoption recruited from gay bars in 9 large cities in mainland China.
Results A total of MSM responded to the question regarding previous suicidal ideation and attempts. Conclusions The survey study has led to a better understanding of the factors contributing to suicide behaviors of MSM in China, which may have significant implications in developing preventive strategies against suicide behaviors in this unique group of individuals.
Background The world has witnessed an economic miracle Zhang beichuan homosexual adoption the past three decades in mainland China. Survey execution Given the sensitive nature of homosexuality, MSM in China are usually hard to be identified and probed. Data categorization and analysis A total of subjects returned their questionnaires.
Results Out Zhang beichuan homosexual adoption the respondents in total, responded to the first survey question i. Cause N n Percentage Romantic gay relationship breakup Open in a separate window. Discussion Suicide is the 13th leading cause of death worldwide [ 13 ] but is the 5th leading cause of death in China [ 14 ]; it is estimated that nearly half of the global suicide cases are from China, India and Japan.
Conclusions Out of a total of Zhang beichuan homosexual adoption involved in this large-scale questionnaire survey conducted in 9 large Chinese cities, respondents answered the question regarding previous suicide behaviors.
Footnotes Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Contributor Information Hongquan Chen, Email: Sheng L, Cao WK. Public health challenges of the emerging HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men in China. A systematic review of mental disorder, suicide, and deliberate self harm in lesbian, gay and bisexual people. Promoting the sexual health of MSM in the context of comorbid mental health problems.
Childhood abuse and mental health indicators among ethnically diverse lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. J Consult Clin Psychol. Suicide attempts among gay and bisexual men: Am J Public Health. Increased risk of suicide attempts among Black and Latino lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals. Suicidality, clinical depression, and anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in men who have sex with men in Mumbai, India: Psychological characteristics in high-risk MSM in China. J Natl Med Assoc.
Risk factors for rural young suicide in China: Lifetime prevalence suicidal ideation, suicide plans and attempts in rural and urban regions of Beijing,
Zhang beichuan homosexual adoption.